Ayurveda embodies the collected wisdom of sages, who saw health as an integral part of spiritual life.. It is said that ayurveda never originated, because in a way the basic principles have been always there.

Hence it is called “ayurveda sanatanam” i.e the principles which have been always there in the existence.

Others say that, ayurveda was passed from god to his messengers and finally to humans..

The story of descent of ayurveda narrates that,thousands of years from now back in time and space, the planet was crammed, with sufferings and ill health .This became a matter of concern to the sages, who saw these suffering as obstacle to growth of mankind and its civilization. Hence aroused a state of urgency, and the need for healing system, which could help people achieve higher state of physical health and consciousness..

For this purpose, the sages from all the direction..sage dhanvantari, nimi, kashyap, bharadwaj and others gathered and under the guidance of great sage punarvasu pleaded lord Indra (king of gods) for help..

Lord indra then invoked for help n guidance of lord Bramha (creator of the universe).. Depicted in the classical text of ayurveda is a shloka, that “ ayurvedamrutam sartha bramha budhawa sanatanam” which means, lord bramha then just recollected the fundamentals of healing and passed the knowledge to dakshaprajapati( a designation amongst god) and he passed it on to Ashwin kumar( the twin celestial healers) and the passed it to lord Indra, and from him to the sages on planet earth.


As the information of ayurveda was so vast, the sages decided to classify it for easy understanding. Hence ayurveda was classified in eight branches.. which would imbibe all the aspects of life..

And hence the sages of ancient India went on to create an astoundingly complete ayurvedic system, comprising of eight speciality branches of medicine

These were:

  • Kaya chikitsa: A science dealing with metabolic disorders, imbalances in various system of body, internal medicine and healing with cleansing and rejuvenating therapies of panchkarma

  • Baal chikitsa: a science dealing with Pediatrics’

It is also called kaumara bhritya tantra

  • Graha chikitsa: a whole branch which only deals with diseases of mind(including demonic possession).

i.e the Psychiatry.

  • Shalakya tantra: this branch deals with disorders of above the clavicle region i.e above the collar bone.. that would include diseases and therapies for eyes, ears, nose and throat.

  • Shalya tantra: this is branch dealing with surgery.. some 2000 years ago sophisticated method of surgeries were known, which included, skin grafting, organ transplant, surgical treatment of kidney stones and intestinal obstructin, tumours, and many more. Dead bodies were used for dissection and understanding the inner organs of body

  • Danshtra : this deals with toxicology.. topics include air and water pollution, toxins not only in animals but also vegetables and minerals aswell as keys for recognizing these and their anidotes.


  • Vajikarana : The branch of Aphrodisiacs, deals with two aspect; infertility for those who hoping to concieve and spiritual development by transmuting sexual energy into spiritual energy.

  • Rasayan tantra: it deals with Rejuvenation. Prevention and longevity are discussed in this branch.. it basically aims at enhancing immunity of each system of the body, through formation of better tissues.





(celestial physicians)



Divodas Dhanwantari
(treta yuga)
School of surgery develops 9- 6th centuary B C.

(Sushrut samhita written in 2 AD)

(dwapar yuga)
pediatric/ gyaenacology

(dwapar yuga)
Human father of medicine

Atreya punarvasu

(Atreya develops school of physicians 8-6th century BC)

Atreya writes charka Samhita 1st century AD

Ashtang Hridayam written(8th century AD

Madhav Nidan written (treatise on diagnosis 9th century AD)

mercury first used- 14th century AD

Sharangdhar Samhita written(Treatise on Ayurvedic recipies 13th century)



To undetstand the concept of ayurveda, one has to be acquainted with its fundamental principles. An insight into the principles helps one understand the mechanism of ayurveda. These are:


  1. Doshas- the three humours

  2. Panchtatva- the five primordial elements

  3. Dhatu- the sven tissues of the body

  4. Mala- the biological waste product

  5. Agni- the digestive fire

  6. Rasa-the six tastes

  7. Virya- the two potencies

  8. Vipaka- the post-digestive effect

  9. Sharir gunas- the 20 attributes

  10. Manas guna- the 3 tendencies

Doshas – the three humors

The eye of an ayurveda practitioner looks into the body, for signs and state of the three doshas everywhere in the the body. These doshas govern the physical processes in the body without being quite physical themselves and invisible. They are responsible for all the physiological processes in the body, hence they could be also called the ‘metabolic principles’

Dosha may be also defined as a factor of prana (subtle life force) which constitutes the individual prakriti ( body type), controls the physiological functions and intiates the pathological changes.

The doshas are sandwiched between the body and mind, where they move in their channels, increasing and decreasing depending upon the factors, and at times displaced into the channels where they don’t belong, leading to a state of dis-ease.


Vata, pitta and kapha only could be understood, if viewed from an ayurvedic prespective.

Vata- it is understood as the electro-motor , physical activity or that which is responsible for initiation of all motion . It is commonly interpreted as air or wind but still it is much more than the literal meaning.

Amongst the three doshas, vata is predominant, as it is also responsible for mainting the equilibrium between the pitta and kapha.

Gunas- the qualities of dosha:

These doshas govern through their gunas( enduring qualities) and to achieve an equilibrium , these gunas must stay in their prearranged degrees.

The leading qualities of the vata are:

Dry, light,cold, rough, subtle, moving.


Although the three doshas exist throughout the entire body, yet each dosha has a primary location, known as its seat, where it is predominant and this seat serves as a focal point for treatment.

The principal location of vata is colon, but it also is found governing in the waist region, thighs, bones, ear, and skin.


It relate with the internal fire, bile, body heat, digestive enzymes, physiochemical, metabolic and endocrine systems.

It is basically responsible for the gross and subtle digestion and metabolism, in the body.

Gunas: the qualities of pitta dosha is notably,

Slight uncous, hot, light,sour smelling, fluid.


The principal location of pitta dosha is small intestine.while also also governin the navel, sweat, lymph,blood, eyes and skin.

The principal location of kapha is stomach. While it also governs the chest, throat, bone joints, smallintestine, plasma, fat, nose and tongue.

Sub-doshas: Now each dosha is broken down into five sub doshas, which makes the diagnosis and treatment more precise. These sub doshas have their own locations in body, giving rise to specific disorder, when imbalances occur.


Sub-doshas of vata:-

  1. Prana vata- located in brain,& head.

Primarily responsiblefor perception and movement of all kinds,it governs the chest, throat, mind, heart, sense organs, intelligenge, ecpectoration, inhalation, ingestion of food, sneezing, belching. It moves downwards.

Imbalance of prana vata- is linked to worry, anxiety, overactive mind, insomnia, neurological disorder, hiccups, asthama, and other respiratory complaints, tension headaches.

  1. Udan vata- located in the chest, governs the throat, and navel.

It is responsible for, initiation of speech and effort, enthusiasm,, ones capacity to work, complexion and capacity of perception and memory. It also nourishes the different channels of the body. It moves upwards.

Imbalance of udan vata- is linked to speech defects, dry coughs, sore throat, tonsillitis, earaches, generalized fatigue.


  1. Vyan vata- it is located at the heart and moves rapidly throught the body. It regulates all the movements including walking, extention, flexion, adduction, abduction, pronation, supination, opening and closing of eyes, yawning, sense of taste, cleansing of the channels, circulation of blood and secretion of sweat , secretion of semen, division of food into, nourishing and waste, also nourishment of all body tissues.

Imbalance of Vyan vata- is linked to high blood pressure

Poor circulation, irregular heart rhythm, stess related nervous disorder.


  1. Saman vata- is located in stomach and and intestine near the digestive fire.

It works in the ailimentary canal, absorbing nutrients and excreting wastes.

It basically holds food in in the ailemantary tract, helps digest it, separates nutrients from waste and eliminates waste.

It is responsible for the rhythm of peristalsis.

Imbalance of saman vata- is linked to too slow or too rapid digestion, flatulence, diarrhea,irritable bowel syndrome, inadequate assimilaton of nutrients, emaciated tissue formation.


Apan vata- is seated in colon, and governs the the waist, bladder,genitals, thighs.

Its downward movement is responsible for elimination of wastes ( feaces& urine) , outside the digestive tract,for sexual function , menstrual flow. It also controls the downward movement of fetus.

Imbalance of apan vata is linked to constipation, diarrhea, intestinal cramps, colitis, genitor- urinary disorder, menstrual disorders, hyper throphy of prostrate,, various sexual; dysfunctios, lower back pain.


Sub-doshas of pitta:-

Pachak pita-

Located in stomach and intestine. In form of non liquid heat, or digestive fire. The fire digests and transforms food, emulsifying food, fats and separating absorbable nutrients from waste.

Imbalance of pachak pitta is linked to heart burn, acid stomach, ulcers, irregular digestion, ulcers, irregular digestion.


Ranjaka pitta- located primarily in stomach, liver and spleen.

This sub-dosha governs the process of transforming lymph chyle into blood cells.

Imbalance of ranjaka pitta is linked to jaundice, anemia, various blood disorder, skin inflammation, anger, hostility.

3)Sadhak pitta- located in heart.

Besides controlling the functions of heart it helps in performing mental functions and associated with intelligence, and conciousness.

Imbalance of this dosha is linked with heart disease, phobias,, emotional instability, and indecisiveness.


Alochak pitta- is located in the eyes.

It governs the sight. And it is responsible for good or bad vision.

Imbalance of alochak pitta is linked to blod shot eyes, vision problems and eye diseases ofall kind.

  1. Bhrajaka pitta- is located in the skin. It regulates complexion by keeping secretions from the sweat and sebaceous glands of the skin active.

Imbalance of bhrajak pitta is linked to rashes, acne, boils, skin camcer and disorders of all types


Sub-doshas of kapha:-

  1. Avalmbak kapha- is locatedin chest and heart and the upper back. It imparts strength to the muscles enhancing physical stamina, and also protects the heart.

Imbalance of avlambak kapha is linked to chest congestion, wheezing, asthama,and heart disorders, lethatgy and back pain.


  1. Kledak kapha- located in the stomach.

Moistens the food, and lubricates the linig of stomach when in balance .

Imbalance of kledak kapha is linked to impired digestion


  1. Bohaka kapha- is located in the tongue.

It helps to perceive taste.

Imbalance of bodhaka kapha is linked to impairment of taste, and salivary glands.


4. Tarpaka kapha- located in sinus cavities, head and spinal fluid. It moistens the nose, mouth, and eys and protects them.

Imbalance of tarpaka kapha is linked to congestion of sinuses, head aches, impaired smell and general dullness of senses.

5. Shleshak kapha- is located in the joints.

Its basic function is ti lubricate them.

Imbalance of shleshak kapha is linked to loose , watery or painfull joints and various diseases.